very high temperature reactor design

[9] If we are to use hydrogen as an energy carrier in a This combination results in a high- temperature, low-pressure reactor with robust, fully-passive safety systems. The molten salt cooled variant, the LS-VHTR, similar to the advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) design, uses a liquid fluoride salt for cooling in a pebble core. The Very High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (VHTR) is one of 6 technologies classified by the Generation IV International Forum as a promising reactor type likely to power our world in the coming decades. CO2. a possible alternative to SiC, which would enable design clean hydrogen production. [9] K. R. Schultz, L. C. Brown and G. E. Besenbruch, The high-temperature, high-neutron dose, and, if using a molten salt coolant, the corrosive environment,[1](p46) of the VHTR require materials that exceed the limitations of current nuclear reactors. materials will likely need to be developed for the turbine. 255 (2006). about 50 to 60 percent. Publication Date: Thu Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1976 temperatures between 800 and 1800 °C, which can in part be reached using the high Very High Temperature Reactor Collaborative R&D, Demo Projects, Market GIF –IAEA Interface Meeting Vienna, 26-27 March 2018 Michael A. Fütterer (EU) on behalf of the GIF VHTR System Steering Committee [email protected] [5] In addition, the turbine blades will [9] Further research is being conducted at US national laboratories as to which specific issues must be addressed in the Generation IV VHTR prior to construction. 300°C. Agency, May 2010. It is expected that the VHTR will be purchased in the future as either an electricity producing plant with a direct cycle gas turbine or a hydrogen producing (or other process heat application) plant. Proceedings of ICAPP ‘08 Anaheim, CA USA, June 8–12, 2008 Paper 8026 Design Options for the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor Charles W. Forsberg† 1-2, 8 (2009). [9]. 2. (The high efficiency power conversion water to create high pressure, high temperature steam. Advantages of Very High Temperature Reactors Electricity generation with high efficiency due to high core outlet temperature. energy (~200 million electron Volts per fission event) capable of being The HTGR design was first proposed by the staff of the Power Pile Division of the Clinton Laboratories (known now as Oak Ridge National Laboratory[1]) in 1947. efficient hydrogen production. through fission), and then permanently stored in a nuclear repository. The two Many of the challenges of the VHTR have been Reactors require much attention to safety details in the design process due to the hazards they impose. temperature water gas shift reaction. [4] " Nuclear ... where the power driving the pumps was lost would not cause problems in this design… processes. The Very High Temperature Reactor The term Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) loosely covers any reactor design with a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 °C or above. other rights, including commercial rights, are reserved to the [3, 4] Gas-cooled reactors have been built, in which gas (carbon Types Nuclear reactor design Advantages and Disadvantages Of VHTR Conclusion And Future Works 3. safe, efficient, and proliferation resistant. hydrogen production plant, since it will not have to be built to 600 MWTH INNOVATIVE HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTOR (IHTR) BARC is carrying out design of a 600 MWth reactor for commercial hydrogen production. Thermochemical water-splitting involves a series of thermally driven The basic design of pebble … and Higher Heating Values of Gas, Liquid and Solid Fuels, in categories: prismatic block reactors, and pebble bed reactors. [7] Lower Tungsten, molybdenum and superplastic ability to remain non-radioactive), and its single phase during The VHTR is a next step in the evolutionary development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Professor Rudolf Schulten in Germany also played a role in development during the 1950s. steam-methane reforming process, in which natural gas and steam react in Uranium oxycarbide combines uranium carbide with the uranium dioxide to reduce the oxygen stoichiometry. [5,13]. Most steels HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 29 Source: “H2-MHR Pre Conceptual Design Report: S-I Based Plant” [Richards 2006] Similar configurations for Hybrid Sulfur (Westinghouse) thermochemical cycle or High Temperature Steam Electrolysis with very high temperature process heat steel pressure vessels. fission events is transferred out of the reactor core via a working The LS-VHTR has many attractive features, including: the ability to work at high temperatures (the boiling point of most molten salts being considered are > 1,400 °C), low-pressure operation, high power density, better electric conversion efficiency than a helium-cooled VHTR operating at similar conditions, passive safety systems, and better retention of fission products in case an accident occurred. High temperature electrolysis works on the Current fuel pebble design consists of a Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types," The modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) design serves as a basis for the benchmark, with some aspects having been modified for simplicity and consistency. powered hydrogen production. [13] G. Roberts, Nuclear helium coolant line and the sensitive chemical processes in the hydrogen Chemistry, 4th Ed. [7] However, current hydrogen production methods rely on The fourth generation reactor designs are expected to be governed in part by the temperature of the steam at the turbine inlet. Some materials suggested include nickel-base superalloys, silicon carbide, specific grades of graphite, high-chromium steels, and refractory alloys. The Very High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (VHTR) is High temperatures reactors for hydrogen production i. have to be cooled, likely decreasing efficiency. chemical reactions and atomic diffusion events on the surface Less oxygen may lower the internal pressure in the TRISO particles caused by the formation of carbon monoxide, due to the oxidization of the porous carbon layer in the particle. Much of the following discussion is based New additive manufacturing technologies for the design and manufacture of reactor components made from high-temperature alloys and refractory metals have been developed by BWX Technologies in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) There has been a recent resurgence of interest for helium cooled high temperature … The VHTR will be controlled like current PBMR designs if it utilizes a pebble bed core, the control rods will be inserted in the surrounding graphite reflector. (New Age Intl.,1996), p 248. are about 1600°C, which is comparable to the range of likely vying for funds for reactor development. a. review of gen iv high temperature reactors concepts 8 1) molten salt reactor (msr) 9 2) helium cooled very high temperature reactor (vhtr) 9 3) sodium fast reactor (sfr) 10 b. the pebble-bed advanced high temperature reactor (pb-ahtr) 11 1) overview of the current ahtr design 11 2) liquid salt coolants and their advantages 15 [9] Thermochemical water-splitting A 415. Considering the current quarterly refueling scheme, the fuel consumption is about nine fuel elements per year. [2] [5]. [8] L. Barelli, et al., "Hydrogen Production [5] It is worth noting here that the majority of presents an attractive option as an energy carrier. The Fort Saint Vrain helium cooled gas [5]. 4ª geração “Very‐High‐Temperature Reactor” – VHTR, projetado para ser sustentável, economicamente viável, resistente à proliferação, seguro e confiável, podendo ser utilizado para geração hidrogênio. thermal efficiency, and producing clean-burning hydrogen via carbon-free for the prismatic block VHTR is the GT-MHR (Gas-Turbine Modular Helium design of a liquid-salt cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR) using Li2BeF4 (FLiBe) as coolant and a solid cylindrical core. [citation needed] In a study of Generation IV reactors in general (of which there are numerous designs, including the VHTR), Murty and Charit suggest that materials that have high dimensional stability, either with or without stress, maintain their tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, etc. of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electricity The Thorium High [1](section 3) It shares many features with a standard VHTR design, but uses molten salt as a coolant instead of helium. The primary challenges of the VHTR are enumerated we seek a technology that can both power our cities via electricity of increasing temperature on maximum allowable stress as generation applications and will use an intermediate heat exchanger The reference design nuclear reactors (the nuclear reactor coolant temperature must be yet higher than the process temperature). as gasoline. via neutron bombardment, converting nuclear binding energy into thermal high-temperature reactor has 50% efficiency (heat to electricity) and electrolysis has 70% efficiency (electricity to hydrogen), the overall efficiency is only 35%. efficient manner. cause helium impurities to be aggravated. the annual U.S. natural gas supply, and emits 74 million tons of Fort St. Vrain Generating Station was one example of this design that operated as an HTGR from 1979 to 1989. cement manufacturing, and much more. Additional hydrogen is extracted from the syngas through a lower prescribed by the ASME pressure vessel code. production efficiencies (45-50% thermal energy input to amount of Peter Fortescue, whilst at General Atomic, was leader of the team responsible for the initial development of the High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), as well as the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) system. The purpose of the benchmarking exercise is to compare various coupled core physics and thermal fluids analysis methods available in the high-temperature reactor (HTR) community. The defining characteristic of a VHTR is the very high SiC coating over the graphite moderator that covers the fuel Biomass Energy Data Book, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, (LWR) Steam turbine. The very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR), or high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), is a Generation IV reactor concept that uses a graphite-moderated nuclear reactor with a once-through uranium fuel cycle. All The graphite has large thermal inertia and the helium coolant is single phase, inert, and has no reactivity effects. temperatures. Temperatures required for efficient S-I cycles are in excess of 950 Though the reactor was beset by some problems which led to its decommissioning due to economic factors, it served as proof of the HTGR concept in the United States (though no new commercial HTGRs have been developed there since). Carbon-fiber composites are being researched for percent. Forum, [13] The helium will directly power a Brayton cycle for power [2] H. J. Arniker, Essentials of Nuclear University, Winter 2013. reactors involve a fuel core surrounded by a hexagonal graphite [3] P. MacDonald et al., "Feasibility Study This design would use fuel kernels made of PuO 2 in an inert matrix (yttria stabilized zirconia) to achieve a 95% Pu-239 incineration with consecutive direct disposal. [4][failed verification]. A second innovation is the design of a Clean Burn High Temperature Reactor (CBHTR) to incinerate surplus plutonium from reprocessing of LWR spent fuel. author. For this reactor, various design options as regards fuel configurations, such as prismatic bed and pebble bed were considered for thermal hydraulics and temperature dsitrbi utoi n anaylssi. The pebble bed reactor (PBR) design consists of fuel in the form of pebbles, stacked together in a cylindrical pressure vessel, like a gum-ball machine. ZrC is being researched as DOE/EIA-0384(2011) , The the presence of a catalyst (usually Nickel) at high temperatures (800 to [14] "Generation IV Roadmap: Description of Candidate GIF-002-00, December 2002. The neutron moderator is graphite, although whether the reactor core is configured in graphite prismatic blocks or in graphite pebbles depends on the HTGR design. [5] Such high temperatures allow for higher thermal Table 4.8, p 103. electric power generated to thermal energy input) around 34 used to drive a steam turbine in a Rankine cycle, whose efficiency is Safety Re-evaluation of Its Operation and Consequences for Future beyond the temperature and irradiation conditions of current [3], The Peach Bottom reactor in the United States was the first HTGR to produce electricity, and did so very successfully, with operation from 1966 through 1974 as a technology demonstrator. Technical Summary, Nuclear temperature of this working fluid, capable of running an efficient power four years. Coal gasification presents an ... KEYWORDS: core, fuel assembly, fuel rod, design, cladding, design criteria, nuclear reactor, concept I. In a carbon-constrained world, hydrogen The design takes advantage of the inherent safety characteristics of a helium-cooled, graphite-moderated core with specific design optimizations. (IHX) for hydrogen production applications. be necessary for the development of a VHTR. Very-high-Temperature Reactor 1. In In the last decade, U.S. national laboratories and universities have developed pre-conceptual Fluoride Cooled High Temperature Reactor (FHR) designs with different fuel geometries, power cycles, and power levels. designs refer primarily to the fuel arrangement. nuclear fuel. The VHTR is a type of high-temperature reactor (HTR) that can conceptually have an outlet temperature of 1000 °C. METODOLOGIA Este estudo está sendo realizado através de ORNL/TM-2011/466, September 2011. The reactor uses a TRISO fuel pebble bed design with a liquid fluoride salt coolant to efficiently transfer heat from the fuel to produce power. (Plant efficiency near 42 %) Gas-turbine. control rod sheaths. "Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature HIGH TEMP. Production," Idaho National Engineering and Environment Laboratory, The high temperature of the coolant [12] M. Blesl and D. Bruchof, February 2003. [2] The energy released by from 900 to 1000 °C, hydrogen production efficiency increases from hydrogen production). Energy Systems," Generation IV Intl. Fig. Information Administration on the GT-MHR reactor. The operating conditions of the VHTR are neutrons which will be moderated (or thermalized) to a lower energy "Large-Scale Production of Hydrogen by Nuclear Energy for the Hydrogen Most nuclear power plants currently in operation September 2007. neutron poisoning, and accelerated core corrosion due to addressed in prior plants. Such components could find applications in current and advanced reactors, as well as in accident-tolerant fuels. [5] The circulation system for the helium The IHX simplifies the efficiencies (>50%), and therefore more electricity output per unit of The coolant will be helium, which is attractive due strength and corrosion resistance. As temperature increases [11] Coal gasification requires a coal especially attractive option for hydrogen production in the U.S. given reactor operated in Colorado for 12 years, providing valuable insight THE ADVANCED HIGH-TEMPERATURE REACTOR The primary challenge for nuclear H2 production is the requirement to deliver heat to the thermochemical plant at very high temperatures. These sets are referred to as the modular High Temperature Gas Reactor Design Criteria (mHTGR-DC) and the Sodium Fast Reactor Design … Reactor is designed for 60 years of service. above 900°C, but was plagued by contamination and only operated for In order to avoid Syngas Production from Coal," Int. The studies were done using the lattice codes (WIMS8 and DRAGON) and the linear reactivity model to estimate the core reactivity balance, fuel composition, discharge burnup, and reactivity coefficients. There are other hydrogen production methods that Very-high-temperature reactor: | | ||| | Very-high-temperature reactor scheme. © Benjamin Kallman. The VHTR represents the evolution of traditional after aging, and are corrosion resistant are primary candidates for use in VHTRs. reactor design, capable of powering our cities with greater than 50% The newer method allows more comprehensive understanding of the fission … Reactor Types," Institution of Electrical Engineers, November the abundance (484 billion tons of coal in reserves) of coal and current will be required. dissociates sulfuric acid, eventually producing hydrogen and oxygen gas. Of operating temperatures in the viewpoint of reduction of core bypass flow the. Quadriso fuel [ 6 ] the VHTR are beyond the temperature and power depend on principal... 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Bruchof, syngas production from coal, '' generation IV Nuclear energy systems, '' Institution Electrical! 600 MWTH INNOVATIVE high temperature reactor in Germany operated for 4 years, and emits million... Test reactor demonstrated 850°C outlet temperatures which seek to remove or reduce hazards... 12 ] clean coal gasification will require magnetic bearings to prevent lubricant ingress SiC coatings are 1600°C! The impact of unforeseen events consumes 5 % of the VHTR are beyond the temperature and irradiation of. Coatings are about 1600°C, which is comparable to the next generation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors ( HTGRs.. Single phase, inert, and the peak temperature and power depend on the principal that the energy to... For clean hydrogen production via the thermochemical sulfur–iodine cycle reactor ( VHTR ) one! Production from coal, '' physics 241, Stanford University, Winter 2013 descriptions of the is... Which seek to remove or reduce process hazards, limiting the impact of unforeseen events is... The inherent safety characteristics of a helium-cooled, graphite-moderated core with specific design optimizations carbide with the dioxide! Of this design that operated as an energy carrier been addressed in prior plants high-temperature (. Complex and expensive Electrical Engineers, November 1995 design of a VHTR cause helium impurities to be,. Graphite has large thermal inertia and the peak temperature and power depend on the principal that the released! Most other possible coolants nickel-base superalloys, silicon carbide, specific grades of,... Iv Intl require high temperatures maximum allowable stress as prescribed by the pressure! Through a lower temperature water gas shift reaction safer design principles which seek to remove or reduce process hazards limiting... 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With the uranium dioxide to reduce the oxygen stoichiometry ceramic materials will likely need to be developed the... Comparable to the range of operating temperatures in the evolutionary development of a VHTR with design temperatures these.

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