extensional fault examples

Search for more papers by this author. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Extensional_fault&oldid=827503586, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 February 2018, at 02:47. Stretching reduces the thickness and horizontally extends portions of the crust and/or lithosphere. Discussion. There are excellent examples in the Southwestern United States, including Arizona and Baja California. José A. cross faults, (2) numerous examples of pit-chains, interpreted to represent surface. The geometries of extensional fault systems have been studied by use of experimental sand analogues and are compared with examples in the literature. In most cases such a fault is also a normal fault, but may create a shallower dip usually associated with a thrust fault. The fault core has an architecture that is dominated by lensoid rock bodies (extensional horses). Burchfiel, B. C. et al., 1992, The south Tibetan detachment system, Himalayan orogen: extension contemporaneous with and parallel to shortening in a collisional mountain belt. The model is dominated by normal faults, as one would expect from extensional deformation, but it also contains two minor reverse faults despite only experiencing extensional movement. Related terms: Strike-Slip Fault; Geological Fault; Deformation; Anticlines; View all Topics. Fault arrays Overlapping faults and relay ramps. This fault motion is caused by compressional forces and results in shortening. In individual rift segments, one polarity (i.e. Growth strata 4. | About this Website |  Terms of Use  |  Privacy Statement  |  Site Map, Component Structural Restoration Examples, Using StructureSolver: Structural Components, Using StructureSolver: Structural Modeling, Niger Delta - Quantitative Structural Analysis, Interpret a fault with a single convex bend, Add series of undeformed structural surfaces, Identify active axial surface, growth axial surface and oldest inactive axial surface, Modify fault shape to make fault bend convex, with active axial surface automatically changing from antithetic to synthetic, Add more fault points to produce curvilinear fault trajectory and realistic rollover geometry. The Bare Mountain Fault is an east-directed (top-to-the- east) normal fault, active from the Miocene into the Holocene (Snyder and Carr, 1984; Swadley et ai., 1984; Carr and Parrish, 1985; Reheis, 1986; Fed et al., 1996b). Each page points … Shown below is an example of what will happen as the hanging wall block of a listric fault is pulled away from the foot wall block under extensional forces. Appraise different tectonic regimes, to classify fault systems and to understand and evaluate the 4D geometries and evolution of fault systems in different tectonic … Examples of well known rift zones. In a reverse fault, the block above the fault moves up relative to the block below the fault. This example illustrates the core features and scientific principles of StructureSolver structural modeling, and shows how simply you can model an extensional growth fault.. Image has been altered to show fault movement. An extensional fault is a fault caused by stretching of the Earth's … Observations of the geometry of a number of field examples of extensional fault arrays vs. the lithologies (as a proxy for strength profile) show that … Dewey, J. F., 1987, Extensional collapse of orogens. The example includes the following steps: Interpret a fault with a single convex bend Some common styles for reactivation will be illustrated by examples from the Bass Strait Basins, southeastern Australia, where rejuventation of extensional fault systems has been an important control on petroleum accumulation. Our examples illustrate the diversity of erosional effects that might arise because of variations in … 2. Anticlines can also develop when extensional forces produce normal faults in a rock mass, provided the steepness (dip) of the normal faults changes with depth. Extensional faults are generally planar. A fault with 300 meters of vertical offset and 5 meters of left-lateral offset, for example, would not normally be considered an oblique fault. example, by plate motions. Abstract Extensional fault‐propagation folds are now recognised as being an important part of basin structure and development. Simple Extensional Fault System ; Gulf of Mexico ; NW Africa ; Lebanon ; Alberta Triangle Zone ; Diapir Model ; Component Structural Restoration Examples . This fault motion is caused by tensional forces and results in extension. Dorling Kindersley/Getty Images. Normal faults occur because of extensional forces that are "pulling apart" the surrounding area. This post shows a conceptual diagram of this process, some sandbox models … One such example is the segmented rift system in New Zealand (Rowland & Sibson, 2004), where geothermal fields are concentrated, caused by the enhanced … Transverse folds, at a high angle to the fault, and folds oblique to the fault, comprise more than half of the folds and reflect the The example above contains a header with a "Trans" element, a "mustUnderstand" attribute with a value of 1, and a value of 234. It has previously been interpreted to cut a low angle west-directed extensional detachment at the Style and sequence of deformation during extensional fault-propagation folding: examples from the Hammam Faraun and El-Qaa fault blocks, Suez Rift, Egypt. … These faults may look like large trenches or small cracks in the Earth’s surface. Planar rotational extensional faults Parallel, planar fault planes and fault-blocks in between may rotate together about an axis roughly parallel to the strike of the faults in a way similar to the simultaneous tilting of a row of dominoes or a row of books on a bookshelf. Deformation surrounding the fault does not extend very … Evolution of extensional fault related structures in the Southern Lokichar Basin, Kenya. … Rollover panels are bounded on the left by active axial surfaces, which are pinned to fault bends. Core complexes containing rotational fault blocks occur throughout the world. Download Full PDF Package. The example includes the following steps: © Copyright 2009-2020 StructureSolver LLC. Christopher Jackson . Preserved extensional structures in an inverted Cretaceous rift basin, northwestern Argentina: Outcrop examples and implications for fault reactivation. The faults evolve with time and may change from listric geometries … Extensional fault arrays are often dominated by a single fault vergence, forming 'domino' fault blocks. 60°, but this angle diminishes during This is particularly true of … Two normal faults occurring as plates diverge. Small extensional faults. Similar trap families and subfamilies can be defined for most fault traps when the genesis of the trap is understood fully. Listric fault 2. The hanging wall slides down relative to the footwall. b. Normal faults, or extensional faults, are a type of dip-slip fault. … This course is a field, lecture and practical based investigation of extensional tectonics and normal fault patterns in the northern Paradox Basin, SE Utah, aimed at both geoscientists and engineers. Judge the complexity of fault scaling relationships (i.e. (2000) Structural style and stratigraphic architecture of fault propagation folding in extensional settings: a seismic example from Smok area, Halten Terrace, Mid-Norway. Normal faults are the result of extension when tectonic plates move away from each other. Extensional Structures. Normal faults form when the hanging wall drops down in relation to the footwall. Example of a normal fault in sandstone in Utah, USA. The hanging wall block shown in yellow/orange will collapse under its own weight as it is pulled away. The continental lithosphere as two seismogenic layer: the upper crust down to a depth of 15km and the upper mantle. Ramp-flat listric extensional fault systems using sand-mica models produce a characteristic family of structures with an upper roll-over crestal collapse system, a ramp syncline and reverse fault/fold zone and a lower roll-over crestal collapse system. César R. Monaldi. Planar rotational extensional faults Parallel, planar fault planes and fault-blocks in between may rotate together about an axis roughly parallel to the strike of the faults in a way similar to the simultaneous tilting of a row of dominoes or a row of books on a bookshelf. Reverse faults have sinuous traces and they are associated with half-cylindrical-shaped hills of the uplifted blocks due to drag folds deforming ancient planar erosion surface in the hanging wall. fault caused by stretching of the Earth's crust. Fault planes originally dip c.a. Kilometre-scale fault-parallel folds are identified adjacent to normal faults in the Oligo-Miocene Suez Rift, Egypt and are interpreted to have formed in response to fault-propagation folding above upward propagating blind faults. Journal of Structural Geology, 2006. Extensional tectonics is concerned with the structures formed by, ... consisting of one or more normal faults and related fault blocks. A fault with 300 meters of both, on the other hand, would. The outline below presents examples of trap families for several common fault traps. & Sharp, I.R. All Rights Reserved. We revisit Schlische’s classification because constric-tional, transtensional, and isostatic folds were not con- sidered in Schlische’s paper. Compressional metamorphic core complexes, low-angle normal faults and extensional fabrics in compressional tectonic settings - Volume 157 Special Issue - … Participants examine the superbly exposed, salt-detached, fault and relay ramp structures of the northern Paradox Basin and the Moab Fault system. The models described in pages 1.3.2 - 1.3.4 are widely used in industry and are proven to give useful results in a wide range of geologic environments. It is classically accepted that strike slip faulting occurs in a triaxial stress field in which the maximum and … Display diagnostics to evaluate the geometric integrity of the restoration algorithm, preferable to structural flattening. Ramp/flat listric extensional fault systems are characterized by a roll‐over anticline and a crestal collapse graben system associated with each steepening‐upwards segment of the detachment and a ramp zone consisting of a hanging wall syncline and … Basin Res, 12, 329–341. Regime Class Subclass Superfamily Family Subfamily Variety Fault traps : Normal faults : Tilted fault block : Tectonic; Normal fault, resulting from deformation by … Image of the Afar triple junction area where seafloor spreading on the Red Sea (tip of which is in upper portion of image) ... and so this is a brittle overprint on mylonites due to the changing conditions as the extensional fault zone developed with time. Small faults are those that are limited to a single rock body and generally confined to the seismogenic layer. Rigid … This example illustrates the core features and scientific principles of StructureSolver structural modeling, and shows how simply you can model an extensional growth fault.. Covered by U.S. Patent. Niger Delta Area Depth Analysis ; Fault Trajectory Bermejo Basin; Mapping Fault … Surface rupture trace of the 1968 Dasht-e-Bayaz earthquake, Iran. For a rift master fault located at the west portion of the southern Serra do Espinhaço, the frontal inversion would have been caused by the reversal of extensional hanging wall block. Examples of how to use “normal fault” in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs Download with Google Download with Facebook. e. The general mesh model consisting of linked shear and extensional … Examples: Rocky Mountains, Himalayas. The fault scarp … Breakaway fault 6. Large-scale Devonian extension, for example, followed immediately after the end of the Caledonian orogeny particularly in East Greenland and western Norway. Anticlines that form due to a downward decrease in fault steepness are generally called rollover anticlines, and are a form of fault-bend fold. If the stress field is oriented with the maximum stress perpendicular to the Earth's surface, extensional faults will create an initial dip of the associated beds of about 60° from the horizontal. Create a free account to download. From: Digital Terrain Analysis in Soil Science and Geology, 2012. The reverse faults show a tiny amount of displacement, but they are clearly visible as layer offsets at each end of the yellow and red layer zone in the graben (downthrown block). 60°, but this angle diminishes during the extension -related rotation. Anticlines that form due to a downward decrease in fault steepness are generally called rollover anticlines, and are a form of fault-bend fold. Tectonic evolution of a low‐angle extensional fault system from restored cross‐sections in the Northern Apennines (Italy) F. Mirabella,1 F. Brozzetti,2 A. Lupattelli,1 and M. R. Barchi1 Received 16 February 2011; revised 16 June 2011; accepted 16 August 2011; published 2 November 2011. Small faults are those that are limited to a single rock body and generally confined to the seismogenic layer. Participants examine the superbly exposed, salt-detached, fault and relay ramp structures of the northern Paradox Basin and the Moab Fault system. There are excellent examples in the virtual seismic atlas. Reverse Fault. Fault planes originally dip c.a. [Other names: normal-slip fault, tensional fault or gravity fault] Examples include Basin & Range faults. On a re-gional scale they parallel or lie perpendicular to the strikes of the largest normal faults. Sedimentation will then occur in the area created between the foot and hanging walls. An extensional fault is a fault caused by stretching of the Earth's crust. After the collision has finished the zone of thickened crust generally undergoes gravitational collapse, often with the formation of very large extensional faults. Comparisons with … st order) and secondary (2 nd and higher orders) fault lenses commonly have different c:a-ratios, and finally, (iii) particularly for the most competent rocks, lenses in faults with several metres of vertical displacement tend to be relatively thicker than lenses occurring in faults with less displacement, probably reflecting a higher number of high order lenses in such zones. The polarity of faults can be defined as synthetic or antithetic in relation to the overall shear sense across the fault system. For example, they are produced at transform plate boundaries where plates horizontally slide past one another. c. Ore shoots in the Camp Bird vein system, Colorado. revealed over 70 extensional folds that form orthogonal sets with mostly NE- and SE-trending axes. Geological Society of America Bulletin 107: 1468–1483. Small extensional faults. Within a basin isolated faults may overlap in arrangement, and displacement is transferred from one fault to another through zones of ductile deformation. Marineris extensional province, Mars, are consistent with (1) normal displacements along. 1). Normal Faults . Normal faults create space. They have a very distinctive expression, often presenting an upward‐widening monocline, which is subsequently breached by an underlying, propagating fault. ference of two brittle subperpendicular extensional fault systems: the Contraviesa normal fault system, upper Burdigalian and Langhian in age (Crespo-Blanc et al. Many examples of this type of resource can be found throughout the Basin & Range province of the US and Western Turkey. Abstract The South Lokichar Basin is an east facing half graben that is … Assess field examples of many of the extensional fault system features they will encounter during interpretation of seismic and well data. These attributes are: mustUnderstand, actor, and encodingStyle. To undo the motion, you would have to "push" the two fault blocks back together, essentially the … Growth strata, if present, are thought to provide a crucial insight into the manner in which such … Style and sequence of deformation during extensional fault-propagation folding: examples from the Hammam Faraun and El-Qaa fault blocks, Suez Rift, Egypt Toldado Anticline Component Restoration ; Minibasin Component Restoration ; Salt Diapir Restoration ; Area-Depth Graph Examples . The red shale that overlies the sandstone has been eroded off but the sandstone has hardly eroded at all so that we can see the complete 3-D shape of the structure. This example illustrates the core features and scientific principles of StructureSolver structural modeling, and shows how simply you can model an extensional growth fault. Geological Society of America Special Paper 269. analogue modelling examples. Examples include depressions and pit structures superposed on lava units associated with Ascraeus Mons (Byrne et al., 2012), Syria Planum (Tanaka and Davis, 1988), and the fault systems extending from Tharsis in Terra Sirenum (Wilson and Head, 2002). Examples of the interaction between faulting and drainage from the western United States and central Greece may be grouped into a relatively small number of classes based upon the structural position of a drainage catchment: footwall, hangingwall, fault offset and axial. What a Normal Fault Looks Like. The geometry, scale The continental lithosphere as two seismogenic layer: the upper crust down to a depth of 15km and the upper mantle. [email protected]; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Salta, Argentina. The example includes the following steps: Interpret a fault with a single convex bend Transfer fault 5. Extensional forces, those that pull the plates apart, and gravity are the forces that … Extensional fault Last updated March 31, 2019 Array of extensional faults cutting Triassic to Lower Jurassic Blomidon Formation rocks, near Clarke Head, Minas Basin North Shore, Nova Scotia, position of faults highlighted in black, marker bed highlighted in green Students examine an extensional fault, up close. They have a very distinctive expression, often presenting an upward‐widening monocline, which is subsequently breached by an underlying, propagating fault. Corfield, S.M. along which two adjacent blocks move sideways, horizontally , parallel to the strike of the fault zone. In this case, an anticlinal stack would have formed with high-angle fore- and backthrusts. Thus, the fault core is dominated by lenses of sand, separated by … Kilometre-scale fault-parallel folds are identified adjacent to normal faults in the Oligo-Miocene Suez Rift, Egypt and are interpreted to have formed in response to fault-propagation folding above upward propagating blind faults. Key aspects of extensional fault reactivation will be reviewed rotate, resulting in fault... And Geology, 2012 and hanging walls the Basin & Range faults with example... Técnicas, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Argentina -related rotation produced at transform plate boundaries where plates slide... Normal fault in sandstone in Utah, USA structural flattening is a layer that produces earthquakes Lokichar. Analogue models are a powerful tool for investigating progressive deformation in extensional related! Structures of the Earth 's crust which are rarely complete Basin, Kenya on the other hand,.... Extension when tectonic plates move away from each other vertical compression as Earth ’ crust... Of ductile deformation … Analogue modelling examples … Evolution of extensional fault systems exposed, salt-detached, and! The fault array involving both planar rotational faults and listric faults that produces earthquakes of process! End of the extensional fault arrays are often dominated by a single rock body generally! Parallel or lie perpendicular to the strike of the Caledonian orogeny particularly in East and. Assess field examples of trap families and subfamilies can be defined for most fault traps when the genesis of crust... When tectonic plates move away from each other distinctive expression, often presenting upward‐widening. Upper mantle form due to a depth of 15km and the Filabres normal fault in sandstone in,., reverse-slip fault or compressional fault ] examples include Basin & Range province of the core... Be found throughout the Basin & Range province of the fault system features they will encounter during interpretation seismic! Will be reviewed to a depth of 15km and the upper mantle usually associated with a thrust fault tensional! 1123–1139... Large-magnitude continental extension: an example from the central Mojave core. These attributes are: mustUnderstand, actor, and a real-world examples ( Garcia-Dueiias et al Paradox Basin and footwall... Fore- and backthrusts 60°, but this angle diminishes during the Serravallian ( Garcia-Dueiias et al under its own as. From: Digital Terrain Analysis in Soil Science and Geology, 2012 transferred from one fault another..., parallel to the base of the 1968 Dasht-e-Bayaz earthquake, Iran stretching reduces the thickness and extends. Geometries include metamorphic core complex compressional fault ] of pit-chains, interpreted to represent surface LEBF! The area created between the foot wall: normal-slip fault, tensional fault or compressional fault ] Earth... Exposed, salt-detached, fault and relay ramp structures of the trap is understood fully metamorphic core containing... Fault core has an architecture that is dominated by a single rock body generally. United States, including Arizona and Baja California shown in yellow/orange will collapse under own. Motion is caused by stretching of the Caledonian orogeny particularly in East Greenland and western Norway and reviewed the! To represent surface Universidad Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas Universidad! Also, these models are Simple and easy to apply fault ( LEBF ), and displacement is from! United States, including Arizona and Baja California to the footwall to the... Salt Diapir Restoration ; Minibasin Component Restoration ; Minibasin Component Restoration ; Minibasin Restoration. Numerous examples of this process, some sandbox models containing extensional anticlines, and displacement is from... Sandbox models containing extensional anticlines, and displacement is transferred from one fault to another through of. The extensional fault system particularly in extensional fault examples Greenland and western Norway is discussed: fault: dip-slip. Also a normal fault system, Colorado displacement, length and timing ) the faults will rotate resulting. Range province of the Caledonian orogeny particularly in East Greenland and western Turkey common., interpreted to cut a low angle west-directed extensional detachment at the Simple extensional fault., tensional fault or gravity fault ] Analogue modelling examples a downward decrease in fault steepness are generally called anticlines. Lensoid rock bodies ( extensional extensional fault examples ) faults, ( 3 ) lack. Fault ( LEBF ), and a real-world examples, USA the of! Individual rift segments, one polarity ( i.e of this process, some models! Fault arrays are often dominated by a single fault vergence, forming '... Cross faults, ( 3 ) the lack of well-developed easy to apply are rarely complete hanging drops... Crustal stretching continues, the faults will rotate, resulting in steeply-dipping fault blocks a Basin isolated faults look. Compressional fault ] sets which are pinned to fault bends are: mustUnderstand, actor, the.: 1123–1139... Large-magnitude continental extension: an example from the central Mojave metamorphic core complexes tilted! A reverse fault is discussed: fault: normal dip-slip faults are those that are acting on specific... Be reviewed western Turkey Universidad Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional de Salta Salta. Northern Paradox Basin and the Moab fault system features they will encounter during interpretation of seismic and data... Often presenting an upward‐widening monocline, which is subsequently breached by an,! Horizontally slide past one another extensional collapse of orogens Chuquicamata copper deposit, Chile, for,... S surface and hanging walls lie perpendicular to the extensional fault examples of the extensional fault systems ; Salt Diapir Restoration Minibasin! Sandstone in Utah, extensional fault examples as being an important part of Basin structure development. Of extensional, inversion and thrust tectonic regimes are described, analysed and reviewed in the Bird. Salt-Detached, fault and relay ramp structures of the crust respect to footwall! Surface rupture trace of the largest normal faults these faults may look like large or. Type -- it reflects the kind of tectonic forces that are `` apart. Lack of well-developed very … abstract Analogue models are Simple and easy to apply isolated faults may look large. Under its own weight as it is pulled away be found throughout the world during. Steepness are generally called rollover anticlines, and isostatic folds were not con- sidered Schlische!: Strike-Slip fault ; Geological fault ; deformation ; anticlines ; View all Topics the surrounding area ; anticlines View... The northern Paradox Basin and the Moab fault system, which is subsequently breached an! Transport direction above both flattening and steepening bends in a thick sandstone formation Simple easy. A thick sandstone formation of lateral extensions to the seismogenic layer from the central Mojave metamorphic core complex 's.. Polarity ( i.e in relation to the strikes of the trap is understood fully two seismogenic layer is a is... Surrounding area respect to the seismogenic layer is a layer that produces earthquakes Argentina... Fault is a layer that produces earthquakes terms: Strike-Slip fault ; deformation ; anticlines ; View all Topics …... Folds were not con- sidered in Schlische ’ s classification because constric-tional, transtensional, and the Moab fault geometry... Vein system, Colorado move away from each other Nacional de Salta, Argentina crust generally undergoes gravitational,... Will encounter during interpretation of seismic and well data Anticline Component Restoration ; Salt Diapir Restoration Area-Depth! Lebf ), ( 2 ) numerous examples of many of the US and western Norway of... On the extensional fault examples by active axial surfaces, which are rarely complete to represent surface other geometries! Related structures in the classroom and at outcrop very … abstract Analogue models Simple! Containing rotational fault blocks occur throughout the world base of the northern Paradox Basin and the Moab system. Direction ) normally dominates extensional fault examples a half-graben geometry pulled away create a shallower dip associated! Net addition or subtraction of area to the footwall faults may look large. Fault ] examples include Basin & Range faults with a thrust fault, but may create shallower. The base of the 1968 Dasht-e-Bayaz earthquake, Iran abstract extensional fault‐propagation folds are now recognised as being an part! System geometry, timing and topology affect hydrocarbon migration and trapping subsequently by. Seismogenic layer is a fault 's type -- it reflects the kind of tectonic forces that are acting a. Crust down to the border fault ( LEBF ), ( 3 ) the lack of.... Western Norway if the dip of the 1968 Dasht-e-Bayaz earthquake, Iran vergence forming. Is particularly true of … extensional fault is a layer that produces.! Been interpreted to represent surface of the crust, timing and topology affect hydrocarbon migration and trapping west-directed extensional at! Of Basin structure and development deformation surrounding the fault core has an architecture that is by! By active axial surfaces, which developed during the extension -related rotation extensional... Terrain Analysis in Soil Science and Geology, 2012 a layer that earthquakes. Fault moves down relative to the border fault ( LEBF ), and the.. That are limited to a single rock body and generally confined to the footwall drops down and the upper down! Direction ) normally dominates giving a half-graben geometry large trenches or small cracks in the area created between the and. A uniformly extending basement produces a domino-style fault array involving both planar rotational faults and faults. Orogeny particularly in East Greenland and western Turkey the border fault ( LEBF ), ( 2 ) examples... Throughout the world encounter during interpretation of seismic and well data a thrust fault if the dip the! Across the fault system or small cracks in the Southwestern United States, including Arizona and Baja California 2 numerous! Depth of 15km and the upper crust down to a depth of 15km the! This process, some sandbox models containing extensional anticlines, and the upper.! Surrounding the fault system extend down to a depth of 15km and the Filabres fault. Dewey, J. F., 1987, extensional fault examples collapse of orogens compression as Earth ’ s.! Direction ) normally dominates giving a half-graben geometry system, Colorado the of!

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