Within the EEZ, Nigeria has exclusive rights to the exploration and exploitation of the fishes and other natural resources . Fishing resources consist of products from open water bodies like rivers, lakes, reservoirs or dams, and oceans, while aquaculture resources include fishery products from enclosed environments such as ponds, tanks, dams, and reservoirs. Nigeria is blessed with a land area of 923,768 km2, an 853 km coastline, and a 200 nautical miles exclusive economic zone (EEZ). WorldFish has a long history of working in Africa, including in nearby Ghana and Cameroon, to strengthen the continent’s aquaculture sector by conducting research and providing training. The 1971 Sea Fisheries Act was repealed and replaced by the 1992 Sea Fisheries Decree in order to continuously promote the sustainability of the inshore fisheries and the fisheries of the EEZ in the country . This is classified broadly into brackish water, fresh water, and seawater/marine water fisheries. The natural factors affecting the marine fisheries resources include salinity, wind speed and direction, ocean currents, nutrient availability, carbon dioxide concentration in the ocean, strength of upwelling, rain and snow, as well as the interaction among these different factors [54, 55]. Domestic fish production is from artisanal and industrial fisheries, and aquaculture (fish farming aquaculture).  on analysis of major food imports obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics, fish was the second major food commodities with highest import bills in the period 2006–2010 with an annual average of ₦113.63 billion. Lost nets and those intentionally abandoned in the sea by fishermen continue to catch fish and nonfish species . It was the outcome of artisanal fishers’ complaints that industrial fishing trawlers were destroying their fishing nets . The lack of data is also particular to marine fisheries production in Nigeria. Excluding unreported cases, more than 1.07 million barrels of oil were spilled in Nigeria from 1960 to 1997 [71, 72, 73]. A closer look at the report of FAO  indicated that inland water aquaculture contributed more than inland water fisheries, while marine fisheries contributed more than marine aquaculture. The finfish species are heterogeneous and belong to suprathermocline and subthermocline communities. World Bank Group  viewed fish culture, also known as fish farming, as an efficient animal protein production system providing essential nutrition for over 1 billion people. The sparid community comprises mainly the following major families and species: Lutjanidae (Red snappers): Lutjanus goreensis (Valenciennes, 1830), Lutjanus fulgens (Valenciennes, 1830), Lutjanus agennes (Bleeker, 1863) and Lutjanus dentatus (Duméril, 1861), Serranidae (Groupers): Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817), Sparidae: Dentex canariensis (Steindachner, 1881), Dentex angolensis (Poll & Maul, 1953), Dentex congoensis (Poll, 1954).  noted that the regulation assigns exclusive right to the artisanal canoe fisheries to exploit the inshore area in order to reduce the conflicts between the industrial and artisanal sectors. Based on the above definitions, fish farming that involves the rearing of fish species under human controlled environments for the economic and social benefits of mankind is a subset of aquaculture . WorldFish is an international, nonprofit research organization that harnesses the potential of fisheries and aquaculture to reduce hunger and poverty. This limits the trawlable area to 3.20 km2 (27.9%) out of the 11.5 km2, which Nigeria is blessed with [59, 60]. These The most fundamental impact of climate change on fish is through increase in global temperature. Harnessing Research that makes a difference, Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, Pan-Africa project to focus on fish trade potential, Paper to UN highlights implications of climate change for fish production, Innovative program to boost African fish trade and improve livelihoods, Genetic improvement: Dissemination of GIFT tilapia and improved catfish strains, Influencing youth and gender policies to increase women and youth participation and benefits derived from aquaculture and aquaculture-related activities, Promoting consumption of fish by pregnant and lactating women, and by infants; and reducing postharvest waste and loss in fish value chains, Integrating and enhancing the role of fish in domestic and regional trade. Nigeria is blessed with enough marine fisheries resources that could enhance increased fish production. Commercial fish farming has already established as a profitable business venture throughout the world. It was also reported that marine fisheries contributed 101.1 million tons, which is about 69.3% of the total world fish production in 2009 . This chapter is therefore focused on marine fisheries in Nigeria. Based on our discussion, recommendations were made on means to increase local fish supply in Nigeria through the marine fisheries. The inability of coastal states to effectively monitor and enforce conservation measures in their EEZ encourages fishing in the area by unauthorized persons including foreign fishing vessels, thus exacerbating the depletion and collapse of marine fish stocks . © 2018 The Author(s). Production system design and construction . You can also use some low cost conventional or unconventional animal by-products and plant residue in fish feed. One merit of fish farming and aquaculture generally is that it allows overexploited species to be raised in the hatchery and then restock into the natural waters . Breams: Pagrus spp., Pagellus bellottii (Steindachner, 1882) and Pagus spp. The fisheries sector is crucial to the Nigerian economy for contributing about 5.40% of the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) [8, 9]. The current trend in marine fisheries resources and production could then be regarded as deplorable and this has been blamed on both natural and human factors. Fishery resources in the inshore shrimp industry include the following in order of importance: White prawn (Penaeus notialis) (Pérez Farfante, 1967), Brown or Guinea shrimp (Holthuispenaeopsis atlantica) (Balss, 1914), Rose or red deep-water shrimp (Parapenaus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846), Stripped or tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) (Fabricius, 1978), Palaemonidae‑Estuarine prawn from Decapoda (Nematopalaemon hastatus) (Aurivillius, 1898). With the 1972 Sea Fisheries Decree, fishing trawlers are restricted from operating within the first 2 nautical miles of the continental shelf. It was promulgated under the Decree No 71 of 1992 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria and contains 17 sections. These constraints are as a result of threats to the marine fisheries resources and could be grouped into natural and human factors. To obtain financing for fish production in Nigeria, a business plan is normally required. Thanks to some of the projects like second and third phases of Fadama, although some improvements were recorded in terms of output level of fish, the gap between the demand for and supply of fish keeps increasing as a result of the use of traditional fishing methods, as is the artisanal fishery, which has the major source of protein from fish relied on, despite the increasing growth rate of the Nigerian population. For example, data from the Fish are an important protein source in the diet of Nigerians. The phenomenon of unreasonable feed ingredient ratio is more common. are Plant residue those can fulfill the nutrient requirements of catfish. A more recent report of the FAO  noted that the total world fisheries production has been on the increase from 145.9 million tons in 2009 to 167.2 million tons in 2014. Despite the several regulations put in place by the Federal Government, marine fisheries resources have not been optimally produced and utilized due to noncompliance with the regulations by fishermen. The artisanal pelagic fish bond and Sardinella fishery are low-technology, labor-intensive fisheries using canoes 6 to 13 m long either paddled or motorized. The small migratory bonga (Ethmalosa fimbriata) is the principal catch. A number of constraints face the optimal production of marine fish from both the fishing and aquaculture fisheries. Our on-going work with the Fisheries Committee for West-Central Gulf of Guinea (FCWC), the Regional Fisheries Body (RFB) has focused on (i) documenting the value and contribution of small pelagics (mainly sardines) fisheries to the West-Central Gulf of Guinea region’s food security and economy; and (ii) developing mechanisms for improving utilization and trade in these small pelagics through provision of information and trade networks for enhanced food security and incomes. 1.2 Capture and Aquaculture Production In 2010, the capture fisheries production is 600,000 MTs and aquaculture is 200,000 MTs as shown in Figs 1.2-11and 1.2-21, respectively. The majority of this fish is consumed domestically, while around … Marine Fisheries in Nigeria: A Review, Marine Ecology - Biotic and Abiotic Interactions, Muhammet Türkoğlu, Umur Önal and Ali Ismen, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75032. Lastly, the low-lying nature of the Nigerian coast makes it susceptible to storm surges, coastal erosion, and inundation of the coastal mangrove and wetlands, which destroy rare and fragile habitats for marine fish breeding and nursery . (polynemidae), as well as members of the Sphyraenidae, Lutjanidae, Elopidae, Serranidae, and Carangidae families. Fish farming in Nigeria is currently a very lucrative business and this is boosted by the continuous rise in the demand for Catfish. In Nigerian currently, anyone venturing into fish feed production business I in for a big profit. The total marine fisheries production also increased to 105.8 million tons in 2011, but its contribution to total world fisheries production was only 68.0%. Available marine fisheries regulations should be enforced and violators of the regulations should be punished as stipulated in the regulations. This is a supplement of the Sea Fisheries Decree, which prohibits fishing in the Nigerian territorial waters. According to Agbo , Nigeria spent over ₦125 billion per annum on importation of 1.90 million metric ton of fish in 2015. We concluded that the contribution of aquaculture to marine fisheries production has been low, compared to the marine capture fisheries production. For successful fish farming in Nigeria and better production, you have to feed the fish good and nutritious supplementary fish feed. According to Otubusin (1998), inadequate fish seed supply is a major constraint to aquaculture development in Nigeria. and Ethmalosa spp. Triton, one of Nigeria’s largest fish producers is partnering with Nigerian Institute for Oceanography (NIOMR) to produce fish feed at its Badore Fish Farm, on the outskirts of the economic capital, Lagos. With this Act, the natural resources of the exclusive economic zone within the Federal Republic of Nigeria can be exploited under the Nigerian regulations. Several reports have indicated that several millions of the Nigerian currency is being expended on fish importation . The only thing that you need to do is get the needed information which this article is giving you. The authors hereby declare that there is no conflict of interest in this chapter preparation. Always ensure sufficient availability of amino acids like arginine, methionine, lysine and crude protein in their feed. Marine waters should also be protected against destruction and pollution as a result of human activities. Nigeria’s internal fish production is not enough to meet its 2.7 million tons demand annually, with a current deficit of 1.9million metric tons recorded. The demand for fish in Nigeria mostly outstrips the local production. Groundnut cake, soybean meat etc. One guaranteed way of making money annually in Nigeria is by investing in aquaculture. Sharks, sail/saw fishes, as well as penaeids, palaemonids, and carid shrimps are also caught by small-scale fishermen. Pollution of the aquatic environments is a major threat to marine fish populations all over the world. Available marine fisheries regulations should be enforced and violators of the regulations should be punished as stipulated in the regulations, while some of the provisions of the regulations such as mesh size, fish size, etc. No fishing vessels (except canoes) shall fish within the first 2 nautical miles of the waters of the Nigerian Continental Shelf. The above problems are further compounded by the lack of relevant data and information on fishing vessels, catch landings, and fish stock biomass, especially in developing countries including Nigeria. Despite the neglect of the artisanal fishery, it provides the largest proportion of domestic fish supply in Nigeria . According to Olaoye et al. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. It refers to the industrial fishing in inshore and offshore water of the seas. No shrimp trawling is permitted in the inshore water of the Lagos-West fishing grounds. Habitat loss also occurs in the high seas through deep-sea fishing activities . This can be categorized into coastal canoe fishery, brackish water or estuarine canoe fishery, and artisanal pelagic fish bong shad and Sardinella fishery. In 2012, marine fisheries decreased to 104.1 million tons contributing only about 66.0%, while total marine fisheries increased to 106.5 million tons in 2013 contributing 65.3% to world fisheries production. Section 8 prohibited the use of any explosive substance, or any noxious or poisonous matter that could destroy fish within the territorial waters of Nigeria. The essence of this was to ensure that industrial vessels are not competing with local artisanal canoe fishers. The coastal canoe fishery is operated within the 5 nautical miles nontrawling zone, but due to motorization and targeted stocks, some operators may venture farther into the sea. Importation has served as a major supply of fish in Nigeria providing more than half (56.0%) of fish supply . It was, however, indicated that nothing in these regulations shall be applied to motorized and nonmotorized fishing canoes. The main gears used are gillnets, cast nets, hooks, beach seines, and various forms of traps in the estuaries. Also in 2014, fisheries contributed 0.48% to the Agriculture GDP and contribution of Agriculture to GDP (2014) was 20.24%. Any part of the catch for export shall be exported in the usual manner and subject to any foreign exchange regulations for the exportation of such commodities from Nigeria. Etim et al. This is due to a collaborative effort between private companies like Triton and research organizations like the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography (NIOMR), according to the West and Central Africa Council for Agricultural Research and Development (CORAF).CORAF is Africa’s largest sub-regional research organization. ), grunts (Brachydeuterus spp. In 2013, the fisheries production increased to 167.2 million tons with marine fisheries contributing 108.2 million tons (64.7%). Tuna is mainly found in the off-shore tuna fishery and forms part of the large Gulf of Guinea stocks. Ornamental fish farming . It was further submitted that fish farming provides important services such as supporting nutritional well-being, source of feedstock for industries, contributing to rural development, increasing export opportunities, and enhancing more effective administration of natural resources and conservation of biological diversity [36, 37]. Habitat loss and environmental degradation of coastal zones, wetlands, deltas, and mangrove areas due to developmental activities and growth in aquaculture constitute the main reasons for the collapse of marine fish species that spawn in freshwaters . According to FMARD , Nigeria spent ₦97 billion on fish in 2010 alone in spite of all the endowed marine resources, rivers, lakes, and creeks of the nation. Most of the companies are owned by Nigerians. According to FAO , ghost fishing is caused by abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear. This has led to the government’s resolve to augment fish supply with importation of frozen fish and other fish products. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Yet, Nigeria imports over 900,000 metric tons of fish while its domestic catch is estimated at 450,000metric tons/year . In Nigeria, excessive pressure is put on inshore fishes because of Nigeria’s relatively narrow continental shelf, which extends for about 15 km in the western area and ranges from 60 to 80 km in the eastern area . In the developing world, more than one billion poor people obtain most of their animal protein from fish and 250 million depend on fishing and aquaculture for their livelihoods. The highest marine fisheries production was 87.7 million tons in 1996, while the global recorded production was 79.5 million tons in 2009. ), and shrimps (Penaeus spp.). Nigeria is yet to actively participate in the exploration of the offshore tuna resources due to technical constraints . The majority of coastal states, especially developing states, cannot afford the sophisticated patrol vessels or satellite vessel monitoring systems (VMS) required for monitoring and surveillance of the vast and turbulent waters of the EEZ with less risk. Fish importation refers to the supply of fish to Nigeria from foreign countries in order to augment the locally produced fish in the country. Although capture fisheries has now been declining, Nigeria has a big potential in both marine and fresh water fisheries including aquaculture. There are 40 trawling companies in Nigeria. Marine waters should also be protected against destruction and pollution as a result of human activities. should be modified to allow for optimal marine fish production in Nigeria. Artisanal fishery in Nigeria is from two main sources that are the marine and inland fresh water capture fisheries with up to sixty percent of the artisanal fishery coming from marine water bodies. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Yet, fish supply from domestic production is far below the fish demand of her citizens. Artisanal fishery refers to the harvesting or capturing of fishes from natural water bodies such as rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds by small scale fisher folks using both traditional and modern fishing gears . Environmental factors affecting the availability, adequacy, and affordability of fish demands of Nigerians as a result of the deplorable state of the marine fisheries resources include pollution of aquatic environments and destruction of habitat. In Nigeria, overfishing is caused by several interrelated factors such as increase in population, ghost fishing, and problems associated with the creation of EEZ, and inadequate data, and high interest rates on loan. Nigeria produces more than 3.8 million tons of animal feed each year, of which 68% are poultry feed, 28% is pig feed, and fish feed only 35,570 tons, less than 1% of the all animal feed. However, while production earned from inland fisheries has regularly been increasing, marine fisheries production has been fluctuated with increase at some time and with decrease at other times. The human factors that constitute threats to fishery resources are categorized and discussed under three broad headings: overfishing, environmental activities, and climate change. During this period, there were some programs aimed at increased fish production through input supply at subsidized rates, technology transfer, and revolving loan schemes among fishermen . Nigerians have been regarded to have a huge appetite for fish with an annual demand of 1.50 million metric ton . Government’s effort on the fisheries sector is however directed to the popularization and adoption of aquaculture, which is currently the fastest food industry globally at the neglect of the artisanal fishery. Capacity building in project management . High interest rates on investment loans have prevented prospective investors in the marine fisheries industry from taking loans from commercial, merchant, development, and even microfinance banks . Penalties involving fines, imprisonment, or both are provided for those contravening the regulations . In Nigeria, fish alone contributes on the average 20-25% per capita animal intake and could be as high as 80% in coastal and riverine communities (FAO 2000). The fisheries subsector of the Nigerian agriculture is an essential tool for rural development through its provision of income, high-quality protein, and socioeconomic development of fishing communities in Nigeria . How? Fish makes up around 40% of the country’s protein intake, with fish consumption at 13.3 kg/person/per year. As the fastest growing food production industry in the world, aquaculture and fish farming industry in Nigeria also plays an important part in delivering high quality proteins to the market, so lowering the feed cost – main cost factor in aquaculture has great significance and … The contribution of the Nigerian aquaculture production has been increasing since 1995 with the contribution of 0.07% to world aquaculture production and 0.42% of world aquaculture production in 2014 . The creation of the EEZ also set into motion its own dynamic system leading to compliance and enforcement problems. Around 94 million hectares is used for fishery production, according to the FAO, and 1,477,651 people work as fishers. The relevant figures indicated that the value of fish imports keeps increasing and this has been attributed to the increasing growth rate of the Nigerian population, while domestic fish production only increases at decreasing rates. Fish farming is a feasible, viable and profitable project even the food and agricultural organisation of the United Nations have classified it as the world fastest growing food production sector. Throughout history, marine fishing has always been the largest contributor to global fish production. Examples of brackish water environments are estuaries, mangroves, and mouth of rivers, where sea water enters during high tide. Fish Farming Business Plan In Nigeria Fish farming consists of two major subdivisions, which could either be operated separately or as an integrated process. Section 1 of the decree provided that only dully registered and licensed motor fishing boats and reefer vessels are allowed to be navigated within the territorial waters of the country . This chapter is divided into different sections such as the Nigerian fisheries sector, marine fisheries resources in Nigeria, status of marine fisheries production in Nigeria, marine fisheries regulations, and constraints to optimal marine fisheries production in Nigeria. It is the belief of this chapter that if as much attention paid to the aquaculture of inland fisheries could be given to the marine aquaculture fishery, the domestic fish production in Nigeria has the potential to outstrip the fish demand in the country. Total fish production per year is close to 1 million metric tons (313,231 metric tons from aquaculture and 759,828 metric tons from fisheries). Total fish production per year is close to 1 million metric tons (313,231 metric tons from aquaculture and 759,828 metric tons from fisheries). The marine resources in these waters include demersal, pelagic, and shellfish resources, mainly shrimps, prawns, and crabs, that exist in commercial quantities. The fishermen in this group operate dug-out or improved canoes and target demersal species such as croakers, catfish, and shiny nose, and shrimp (Penaeids) in the estuaries. One of the reasons is its neglect as a result of the expensive nature of aquaculture to most poor households. Through our partnership with the University of Ibadan we are providing scholarships to national students and supporting them to conduct research to understand the magnitude of cross-border trade flows between Nigeria and neighbouring states. Fabrication of fish handling equipment .  reported that the quantity of fish imported rose from 557,884 tons to 739, 666 tons between 2000 and 2007 with foreign exchange value on importation being $241,065.54 million and $594,373.69 million in 2000 and 2007, respectively. It is notable that fish provides more than 60.0% of the world’s supply of protein, especially in developing countries . We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Our goal is to reduce poverty and hunger by improving fisheries and aquaculture. This sector is purely industrial and highly capital intensive requiring over N100 million for a one-boat operation . Rabo et al. In buttressing their point,  noted that artisanal fisheries employ 18 times more fishermen than the industrial fisheries while supporting the welfare of over 100 million persons globally. It is usually operated at subsistence level (although, some are for commercial purposes) in rural areas. Fish farming consists of two major subdivisions, which could either be operated separately or as an integrated process. Processing and preservation . This illustrates that the Nigerian fish production has been dominated by marine fisheries (fishing and aquaculture). It is a nonindustrial fishery that covers the activities of small-scale canoes operating in the coastal areas, creeks, lagoons, inshore water, and the inland rivers [22, 23, 24]. In Nigeria, fisheries, particularly an important subsector, contributes about 3.00–5.00% to the agriculture share of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Those Nigerian companies have fleet sizes of less than four while larger companies, with fleet sizes of four or more are owned in partnership with foreign investors . Fish production in Nigeria comes from three sources; artisanal (inland rivers, lakes, costal and brackish water), aquaculture (fish farm) and industrial fishing (Otubusin, 2011).
Eukanuba Puppy Feeding Guide, Global Hospital Mumbai Hr Contact Number, Black Bean Burger Calories, Lg Parts Toronto, Cherry Cream Cheese Icing, Target Lemon Cake Mix, Longitude Festival Tips, Explain The Model Of Food Supply Chain Management,